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brief history of tunisia

[368], "Bourguibism" was also resolutely nonmilitarist, arguing that Tunisia could never be a credible military power and that the building of a large military establishment would only consume scarce investment resources and perhaps thrust Tunisia into the cycles of military intervention in politics at had plagued the rest of the Middle East. Earlier the Phoenicians had settled in (what is now) Sardinia, Spain, Morocco, Algeria, Sicily, and of course, Tunisia. Partagez7TweetezPartagez+17 PartagesThroughout history, nothing has killed more human beings than infectious disease. There is also a vast difference in … Further west (in modern Algeria) was the Romano-Moor Kingdom of Garmul. A Brief History of the African Nation of Tunisia. [216] After his success in recruitment and in building the organization, Abu 'Abdulla was ready in 902 to send for 'Ubaidalla Sa'ed, who (after adventures and imprisonment) arrived in 910, proclaimed himself Mahdi, and took control of the movement. He responded in several military campaigns which by 1160 compelled the Normans to retreat back to Sicily. His books (e.g., The City of God, and Confessions) are still today widely read and discussed. In the tribal rural areas, control and collection of taxes were assigned to a chieftain, called the Bey [Turkish]. Ben Ali subsequently banned Islamist political parties and jailed as many as 8,000 activists. Mahsin Mahdi, There is said to be danger in contemporary use of his local histories, because Ibn Khaldun reluctantly employed highly nuanced "folk Maghribi archetypes" at conflate Berber and Arab tribal identities with static. Yet their movement probably worked to deepen the religious awareness of the Muslim people across the Maghrib. Early in the reign of William I, the "kingdom" of Africa fell to the Almohads (1158–60). A Brief History of Tunisia From Arab Center to French protectorate : Tunisia became a center of Arab culture and learning and was assimilated into the Turkish Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. Tunisia became a center of Arab culture and learning and was assimilated into the Turkish Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. [64][65], A merchant sailor of Carthage, Himilco, explored in the Atlantic to the north of the straits, along the coast of the Lusitanians and perhaps as far as Oestrymnis (modern Brittany), circa 500 B.C. Roman artifacts and a cut-stone mausoleum at Gerama, 700 km. It has been said at much of the Maghrib's misfortunes to follow could be traced to the chaos and regression occasioned by their arrival, although opinion is not unanimous. The Romans ruled and settled in North Africa until the 5th century, when the Roman Empire fell and Tunisia was invaded by European tribes, including the Vandals. 118–129, 128–129, in. The Maliki jurists were often at odds with the Aghlabids, e.g., over their personal immorality, and over issues of taxation regarding agriculture (i.e., of a fixed cash levy instead of a tithe in kind). [17], The religion of the ancient Berbers is undocumented and only funerary rites can be reconstructed from archaeological evidence. Under the Hafsids, Tunisia would eventually regain for a time cultural primacy in the Maghrib. Mortimer Wheeler, A. Bathily, "Relations between the different regions of Africa" pp. The Husaynid Beys ruled from 1705 to 1881, and reigned until 1957. Yet the resulting tax increases were not popular. 1146 - 1160 Tunis occupied by Norman Kingdom of Sicily. by elizabethinjordan in History, Tunisia. The major sector remained agriculture with small farms prevailing, but these did not produce well. Largely it is taken from descriptions by Greek foreigners who likely would see in Carthage reflections of their own institutions. [16]:24–27 Berber ethnic identities were maintained during the long periods of dominance by Carthage and Rome. From 1574 to 1591 a council (the Diwan), composed of senior military (buluk-bashis) and local notables, advised the provincial government. Augustine remains one of the most prominent and most admired of all Christian theologians. Over the years, President Bourguiba stood unopposed for re-election several times and was named "President for Life" in 1974 by a constitutional amendment. Brief History of Tunisia. Some of his companions later founded the weekly magazine al-Hadira in 1888. The Corsican Murad Curso[348] (d. 1631) had since his youth been sponsored by Ramdan Bey (d. 1613). During the interval of Shi'a rule, the Berber people appear to have moved ideologically, from a popular antagonism to the Sunni east, toward an acquiescence to its orthodoxy, though of course mediated by their own Maliki law (viewed as one of the four orthodox madhhab by the Sunni). 1600s - Tunisia becomes part of the Turkish Ottoman empire, but has a high degree of autonomy. During the years immediately preceding the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate of Damascus (661–750),[184] revolts arose among the Kharijite Berbers in Morocco which eventually disrupted the stability of the entire Maghrib. In 238 local proprietors rose in revolt, arming their clients and agricultural tenants who entered Thysdrus (modern El Djem) where they killed their target, a rapacious official and his bodyguards. They decided to guarantee the Tunisian debt, and then abolished the international finance commission. This unfortunate condition of civil discord and Algerian interference persisted. Educated at Rome and obviously a client king, Juba also wrote books about the culture and history of Africa, and a best seller about Arabia, writings unfortunately lost. Here modern commentary and reconstructions are presented concerning their ancient livelihood, domestic culture, and social organization, including tribal confederacies. He also forged a national pact with the Tunisian party Harakat al-Ittijah al-Islami (Islamic Tendency Movement), which had been founded in 1981; later it changed its name to an-Nahda (the Renaissance Party). Brief History of Tunisia. [230] In Arab lore Abu Zayd al-Hilali the leader of the Banu Hilal is a hero, as in the folk epic Taghribat Bani Hilal. The above description of the constitution basically follows Warmington. There are limited fresh water resources. After of century of oscillation, the caliph Abu al-'Ala Idris al-Ma'mun broke with the narrow ideology of prior Almohad regimes (first articulated by the mahdi Ibn Tumart) at had continued to function on and off, and for the most part, at the end, poorly; circa 1230, he affirmed the reinstitution of the then-reviving Malikite rite, perennially popular in al-Maghrib. [92], Expeditions ventured south into the Sahara. First, the Arab military officer class was dissatisfied with the legitimacy of the regime and often fell to internal quarreling which could spill over into violent struggles. Then from about 1100 BC the Phoeniciansfrom what is now Lebanon settled and traded in the area. His forces soon stood before Constantinople. [113], Septimus Severus (145–211, r.193–211) was born of mixed Punic Ancestry in Lepcis Magna, Tripolitania (now Libya), where he spent his youth. The Arabic historians Ibn al-Athīr and Ibn Khaldun, both hoped that Roger would defend his African lands against Almohad extremism and intolerance. A sizable Latin speaking population at was multinational developed, which shared the region with those speaking the Punic and Berber languages. I will be writing some blog posts regarding the history of the Middle East in general and the history of … [246] Ibn Khaldun, in his Kitab al-Ibar, records the abuse the Christians of Sfax heaped on their Muslim neighbours. Then the Etruscans attacked Greek colonies in the Campania south of Rome, but unsuccessfully. [264], Following Ibn Tumart's death, Abd al-Mu'minal-Kumi (c.1090–1163) became the Almohad caliph, circa 1130. Yet, of course, the Byzantines shared with the Romans their civil traditions and the Christian religion. Until the end of the nineteenth century, Tunisia was under Turkish rule and then in 1881 it fell under French protectorate, which lasted until 1956. In addition to the above grievances against the Fatimids, during the Fatimid era the prestige of exercising cultural leadership within al-Maghrib shifted decisively away from Ifriqiya and instead came to be the prize of al-Andalus.[238]. In this effort, one of the United States' priorities is to help Tunisia provide a secure environment conducive to the development of democratic institutions and practices, and to inclusive economic … After removing their capital to Cairo, the Fatimids withdrew from direct governance of al-Maghrib, which they delegated to a local vassal, namely Buluggin ibn Ziri a Sanhaja Berber of the central Maghrib. Then in 313 the new Emperor Constantine by the Edict of Milan had granted tolerance to Christianity, himself becoming a Christian. A social divide persisted, with the important families in Tunisia identified as a "Turkish" ruling caste.[353]. After that, the thesis critically discusses the term and concept of Arab Spring, its history and its usefulness to describe the recent uprisings. [7] An association agreement with the European Union will move Tunisia toward full free trade with the EU by 2008. Later, as other Phoenician ship companies entered the trading region, and so associated with the city-state, the MLK of Carthage had to keep order among a rich variety of powerful merchants in their negotiations over risky commerce across the seas. The Muhallabids (771–793) negotiated with the 'Abbasids a wide discretion in the exercise of their governorship of Ifriqiya. Libyans sacrificed to the sun and to the moon (Ayyur). [332] Yet it was his participation in the small unstable governments of the region at inspired many of his key insights. [101] Here the Romans evidently governed well enough that the Province of Africa became integrated into the economy and culture of the Empire, with Carthage as one of its major cities. [333], His seven-volume Kitab al-'Ibar [Book of Examples][334] (shortened title) is a telescoped "universal" history, which concentrates on the Persian, Arab, and Berber civilizations. Modern Tunisians are the descendants of indigenous Berbers and from numerous civilizations that have invaded and been assimilated iover the millennia. "[241] Rather, "[Norman Africa] really amounted to a constellation of Norman-held towns along coastal Ifrīqiya."[242]. [218][219], After the death of the Mahdi, there came the Kharijite revolt of 935, which under Abu Yazid (nicknamed "the man on a donkey") was said by 943 to be spreading chaos far and wide. In both elections, he faced weak opponents. In fear, the Tunisians sent grain to Sicily in hopes of averting an attack, according to Ibn Idhari. [275][276] Ibn Tumart created a hierarchy from among his followers which persisted long after the Almohad era (i.e., in Tunisia under the Hafsids), based not only on a specie of ethnic loyalty,[277] such as the "Council of Fifty" [ahl al-Khamsin], and the assembly of "Seventy" [ahl al-Saqa], but more significantly based on a formal structure for an inner circle of governance at would transcend tribal loyalties, namely, (a) his ahl al-dar or "people of the house", a sort of privy council, (b) his ahl al-'Ashra or the "Ten", originally composed of his first ten followers, and (c) a variety of offices. Kouloughlis (children of mixed Turkish and Tunisian parentage) and native Tunisians notables were given increased admittance into higher positions and deliberations. The office of MLK began to be transformed, yet it was not until the aristocrats of Carthage became landowners that a council of elders was institutionalized.[85]. However this was rebuffed when Britain and France co-operated to prevent this during the years 1871 – 1878 ending in Britain supporting French influence in Tunisia in exchange for dominion over Cyprus. Yet because of their desire to maintain a superiority in status, the Vandals refused to intermarry or agreeably assimilate to the advanced culture of the Romans. The emergence of the Roman Republic and its developing foreign interests led to sustained rivalry with Carthage for dominion of the western Mediterranean. Also, Carthage enjoyed an able ally in the Etruscans, who then ruled a powerful state to the north of the infant city of Rome. [141][142] The son of the Exarch of Carthage, Flavius Heraclius Agustus,[143] sailed east with an African fleet to the Byzantine capital city of Constantinople and overthrew the usurper Phocas; Heraclius became the Byzantine Emperor in 610. Also came migrations from the Sahel region of Africa. Tunisia's positioning is in the heart of the Mediterranean placing it in the cross-ways of several of the worlds distinguished civilizations. Yet these legal reforms had limited application to many Tunisians. The Eastern Romans or Byzantine Empire eventually recaptured Northwest Africa in 534, under their celebrated general Belisarius. [349][350][351], A gradual economic shift occurred during the Muradid era, as corsair raiding decreased due to pressure from Europe, and commercial trading based on agricultural products (chiefly grains) increased due to an integration of the rural population into regional networks. The socialist experiment raised considerable opposition within Bourguiba's old coalition. [237] Accordingly, Tunisians may evidence faint pride in the great extent and relative endurance, the peace and prosperity at Fatimid rule brought to Egypt, and in the Fatimid Caliphate in Islamic history. The present day Republic of Tunisia, al-Jumhuriyyah at-Tunisiyyah, is situated in Northern Africa. The political culture would be secular, populist, and imbued with a kind of French rationalist vision of the state at was buoyant, touched with élan, Napoleonic in spirit. Following the examples of the Ottoman Empire under sultan Mahmud II, and of Egypt under Muhammad Ali, he moved to intensify a program to update and upgrade the Tunisian armed forces. One Numidian king, Syphax, supported Carthage. Aristotle regarded the 104 as most important; he compared it to the ephorate of Sparta with regard to control over security. Abun-Nasr, Not to be confused with Abu Hafs 'Umar, son of the first Almohad caliph. "[165], Environmental and geographic parallels between Berber and Arab are notable, as Hodgeson adumbrates. Tunis is the capital and the largest city (population over 800,000); it is near the ancient site of the city of Carthage. Ahmed Ben Salah was eventually dismissed in 1970, and many socialized operations (e.g., the farm cooperatives) were returned to private ownership in the early 1970s. His family was considered to possess a sacred quality. Nonetheless, the local ulama were courted, with funding for religious education and the clerics. 348–357, 350, in, Laroui challenges the accepted view of the prevalence of the Latin language, in his, Tilley discusses Tertullian as a predecessor to the Donatists, in her, Cf., William M. Green, "Augustine's Use of Punic" pp. Roads, ports, railroads, and mines were developed. Nonetheless, it could not suppress other traditions and teachings, and alternative expressions of Islam, including the popular cult of saints, the sufis, as well as the Maliki jurists, survived. A history of modern Tunisia / Kenneth Perkins, University of South Carolina. Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the Mediterranean.The city was originally known as Kart-hadasht (new city) to … For centuries Rome/Byzantium's greatest enemy had been the Sassanid Persians, and the two powers were chronically atwar with each other. Social techniques from the nearby polity of Carthage were adopted and modified for Berber use. John K. Cooley. Scientists believe that Africa was the birthplace of mankind. Later raids were made against the Italian peninsula; in 846 Rome was attacked and the Basilica of St. Peter sacked. [49] The Almoravids (1056–1147) first began far south of Morocco, among the Lamtuna Sanhaja. [248] The town of Barasht (Bresk) and the isles of Kerkennah fell to Roger, as did the unruly desert tribes. Mago as MLK was head of state and war leader; being MLK was also a religious office. The Roman Republic and Carthage in 509 entered into a treaty which set out to define their commercial zones. In the spring of 1881, the French army occupied Tunisia, claiming that Tunisian troops had crossed the border to Algeria, France's primary colony in Northern Africa. From Arab Center to French protectorate : Tunisia became a center of Arab culture and learning and was assimilated into the Turkish Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. Tunisia as a French Protectorate: 1881-1934: French control over Tunisia, achieved in 1881, brings to an end several decades of diplomatic jockeying between three colonials powers, France, Britain and Italy. Also, improved trade routes linked Ifriqiya with the continental interior, the Sahara and the Sudan, regions regularly incorporated into the Mediterranean commerce for the first time during this period. As a native of Tunis, he spent much of his life under the Hafsids, whose regime he served on occasion. [118][119], St. Augustine (354–430), Bishop of Hippo (modern Annaba), was born at Tagaste in Numidia (modern Souk Ahras), his mother being St. Monica (who evidently was of Berber heritage). Later, Mediterranean trade gave way to corsair raiding activity. 848–850, 849, in Joel Krieger (ed. Consequently, finer points were overlooked; they failed to sustain in its entirety the workable society. Direct rule by the Caliphs over Ifriqiya became untenable, even following the rapid establishment of the new Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad in 750. [254], The Almohad movement [Arabic al-Muwahhidun, "the Unitarians"] ruled variously in the Maghrib starting about 1130 until 1248 (locally until 1275). Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts Also Ghadames, Ghat, and Tuat served the Saharan trade to Ifriqiya.[210]. In 670 an Arab Muslim army under Uqba ibn Nafi, who had commanded an earlier incursion in 666, entered the region of Ifriqiya (Arabic for the Province of Africa). At the Battle of Zama in 202 the same Roman general Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal Barca, ending the long war. [217], From the start the Mahdi was focused on expansion eastward, and he soon attacked Egypt with a Fatimid army of Kotama Berbers led by his son, once in 914, and again in 919, both times quickly taking Alexandria but then losing to the Abbasids. Ibn Khaldun entered into a political career early on, working under a succession of different rulers of small states, whose designs unfolded amid shifting rivalries and alliances. The fuqaha congregated at Kairouan, then the legal center of al-Maghrib. The First Punic War (264–241) started in Sicily. Oil was discovered, and tourism continued. Pointless Button. The amount of the duties varied, usually five or ten percent. As a result, the rulers and their business partners (drawn from foreign-dominated elites connected to the Ottomans) took a disproportionate share of Tunisia's trading profits. By three thousand years ago the Levant and Hellas had prospered, resulting in an excess of population for their economic base. [397], Fatimids: Shi'a Caliphate, and the Zirids. Maghribi students were drawn to Iraq by the teachings left by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (d.1209). [320] {IN PROGRESS}, Bedouin Arabs[321] continued to arrive into the 13th century; with their tribal ability to raid and war still intact, they remained influential. Unlike the Berber Kusaila ten years earlier, Damiya did not establish a larger state, evidently being content to rule merely her own tribe. He had won backing from the Tunisian ulama and notables, as well as from the tribes, for his opposition to Algerian influence which was removed. In 1830 the Bey also agreed to enforce in Tunisia the capitulation treaties between the Ottomans and various European powers, under which European consuls would act as judges in legal cases involving their nationals. Among the proto-Berbers in the area that is now Tunisia, images of fish, often found in mosaics excavated there, were phallic symbols that fended off the evil eye, while sea shells signified the female sex. Technological innovations and economic development in the eastern Mediterranean, Mesopotamia, and along the Nile, increased the demand for various metals not found locally in sufficient quantity. Recorded history in Tunisia begins with the arrival of Phoenicians, who founded Carthage and other North African settlements in the 8th century B.C. Abun-Nasr, In al-Andalus the Maliki school had turned inward to develop only those issues already present in its own, Compare: Marshall Hodgson states that the Almohads did follow the. Roman officials and Roman law continued, and Latin was used for government business. Eventually they were followed by a stream of colonists, landing and settling along the coasts of Africa and Iberia, and on the islands of the western seas. His political opponents cravenly went to Rome and charged Hannibal with conspiracy, with plotting war against Rome in league with Antiochus the Hellenic ruler of Syria. In June 1959, Tunisia adopted a constitution modeled on the French system, which established the basic outline of the highly centralized presidential system that continues today. The Maliki school was introduced to Ifriqiya by the jurist Asad ibn al-Furat, (759–829), who nonetheless wavered between these two schools of law. Required education is eight years. However, many people, myself included, knew very little about Tunisia when these riots began. Throughout Tunisia's history many peoples have arrived among the Berbers to settle: most recently the French along with many Italians, before them came the Ottoman Turks with their multi-ethnic rule, yet earlier the Arabs who brought their language and the religion of Islam, and its calendar;[55] before them arrived the Byzantines, and the Vandals. Over 300,000 Tunisians were reported to be residing in France during 1994. To these migrants the western Mediterranean presented an opportunity and could be reached relatively easily by ship, without marching through foreign territory. Twice a year, armed expeditions (mahallas) patrolled the countryside, showing the arm of the central authority. He oversaw constitutional and legal changes, including abolishing the concept of President for life, the establishment of presidential term limits, and provision for greater opposition party participation in political life. [280][281], The mahdi Ibn Tumart also had championed the idea of strict Islamic law and morals displacing unorthodox aspects of Berber custom. These were stored by hanging on the walls of their domiciles. Foreign trade proved to be a Trojan Horse.[356]. Imports came from France 25%, Italy 22%, Germany 10%, Spain 5%. The Sanhaja are also widely dispersed throughout the Maghrib, among which are: the sedentary Kabyle on the coast west of modern Algiers, the nomadic Zanaga of southern Morocco (the south Anti-Atlas) and the western Sahara to Senegal, and the Tuareg (al-Tawarik), the well-known camel breeding nomads of the central Sahara. In this department, we'll contribute selective information on Tunisian History along with points and listings for Museums and attractions that make Tunisia a miraculous place to see. The population growth rate measured as births per female has fallen from 7 (1960s) to 2 (2007). In order to write he retired for a while from active political life. French authorities later banned this new party, while the fascist organizations of the Tunisian Italians supported it (Mussolini obtained the liberation of Bourghiba from a Vichy jail in 1942). Yet the majority of Rome's Italian allies remained loyal; Rome drew on all her resources and managed to rebuild her military strength. [191], As recompense, the Aghlabid rulers saw at mosques were constructed or augmented, e.g., at Tunis (the Olive Tree [Zaituna] Mosque, as well as its famous university, Ez-Zitouna); at. The architecture of the elegant tower tomb of his contemporary Syphax shows Greek or Punic influence. [7] Over half the population is considered urban, with agricultural workers being about 30% of the total. Issues concerning a Muslim cemetery, the Jallaz, sparked large demonstrations which ended with martial law and the killing of many Tunisians in late 1911. [73] After being transplanted to Africa far from its regional origins, and after co-existing with the surrounding Berber tribes, the original Phoenician pantheon and ways of worship evolved distinctly over time at the city-state of Carthage. Concerning Donatus or Donatus Magnes, compare Tilly, Maureen A. Tilley has questioned many traditional assumptions about the Donatists, in her, It has been commonly remarked that the more rigorous quest for religious purity made by the rural Berbers, when compared to the more relaxed attitude of mainstream civilization, has led not only to Donatism with regard to Christianity, but also as regards Islam to the Berber attraction for the, It is uncertain how many Berbers professed Christianity, Catholic or. The economy grew at 5% per year during the 1990s (the best in Northwest Africa), but hit a 15-year low of 1.9% in 2002 (due to drought and a decline in tourism), but it regained a 5% rate for 2003–2005; it was said to be 4%–5% for 2006. [74] An important office was called in Punic the Suffets (a Semitic word agnate with the Old Hebrew Shophet usually translated as Judges as in the Book of Judges). Trade with Europe increased dramatically with western merchants arriving to establish businesses in the country. [82] Only after defeat by Rome devastated Carthage's imperial ambitions did the people express interest in reform. Quoted in Abulafia, "The Norman Kingdom of Africa", 34. Axis troops had begun to arrive in Tunisia as early as Nov. 9, 1942, and were reinforced in the following fortnight until they numbered about 20,000 combat troops (which were subsequently heavily reinforced by air). In foreign affairs, Tunisia continued to enjoy close ties to the West while broadly following a moderate, non-aligned stance. In 1911 there were civil disturbances started within the universities. Yet in governing their kingdom the Vandals did not fully maintain their martial culture, having made alliances with Berber forces upon entering the region. The offending tax on crops payable in cash being the act of the second amir, 'Abdullah ibn Ibrahim (812–817).

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